Law enforcement interrogations -

Law enforcement interrogations

How to behave. What you need to know.

Law enforcement interrogations

Interrogation is the most common investigative measure. And the fact that for a normal person stress, for an investigator is an everyday routine. As a sales plan for a manager or bathroom repair for a plumber.
We will analyze the structure of the interrogation, the difference from the survey and conversation, as well as the basic techniques for conducting this investigative action, psychological aspects and the methods used. We will examine precisely the interrogation of a witness, not a suspect or accused.
Is the investigator a monster?
We were born in the USSR. Or our parents. Certain attitudes regarding what is happening outside the walls of the police departments are tightly driven into our brains. And, if you interview several thousand people from different cities of our country, then the general answers to the question "What is the police for you?" there will be a combination of the words FEAR, PAIN, VIOLENCE, MORTALITY, JUSTICE, SUBSTITUTION, SECURITY, SERITY.
Meanwhile, if you look at the statistics of criminal investigations and convictions, as well as take into account the estimate of the number of unjust sentences and prosecution of innocents in the amount of 10% (which, of course, is scary) and about 20% of those who could not be imprisoned , it turns out that out of 626,000 people held in prison, at least 438,000 people actually committed serious crimes, including murders, rapes, robberies, robberies, and extortion. And it was the investigators who did their work to ensure that these people ended up in prison. If you are engaged in cleaning the sewer, you can not help smelling.
I leave out of the scope of this study numerous cases of bribery, violence and callousness of law enforcement agencies that refuse to help when they are obliged to help. "Kill - come." It's like that!

But any investigator systematically, almost every day, communicates with geeks, rapists and simply idiots who cut wives, beat children, drive drunk and kill people at bus stops, take away the last money from pensioners, and breed seriously ill patients to buy fake drugs , they sell left vodka and expired products, for bribes they give permission to open a cafe in the cellars, where dozens of people later burn down alive. And this cannot be ignored.

In fact, they unlearn how to communicate normally, as we are used to. Or, at a minimum, they unlearn how to communicate normally when they are in execution.
During interrogation, communication is not with the robot inquisitor, but with a living person, subject to
strongest professional deformation.

Let us leave emotions aside and see how we can interact with investigators, investigators and interrogators. Professionals are still found among them, despite the abundance of “law enforcement officers” who make four mistakes in the word ***. We will be objective: cattle missing everywhere. And in medicine, and in education, and in advocacy, and in business.

Interrogation, interrogation, conversation, explanation
People sometimes do not distinguish between these terms.

Interrogation is an investigative action in a criminal case. A witness being interrogated in a criminal case is responsible for giving false testimony and for refusing to testify. Even the term “testimony” refers exclusively to interrogation.
During the interrogation, a protocol is drawn up called the “interrogation protocol”. Everything else - a questioning, conversation, giving explanations is not an interrogation and cannot be the basis for bringing to any responsibility. Moreover, no one can be forced to take the survey or appear for a conversation - these actions can take place only with the consent of the interviewee. Before starting, it is necessary to clarify exactly what kind of action is taking place, since investigators like to warn of responsibility during a survey or conversation, although they do not have the right to do so. Only the investigator (interrogator) is entitled to warn of liability.

At the same time, no matter how the action is called, you have the unconditional right to appear in law enforcement with a lawyer.

Important: a lie under the protocol of the survey is not prosecuted, but it can play a cruel joke if you are later questioned as a witness.

If they call and call for interrogation / interrogation / conversation
In most cases, law enforcement officers call people by phone.
How to behave?
I. In no case do not give out any information by phone, do not answer any questions
II. Keep in mind that such calls are often written
III. Find out and record the name, position of the caller, contact numbers, including landline. It is also necessary to record the position, title, unit name, address, cabinet number, telephone number of the person on duty to verify information

IV. Talk politely, do not be rude, do not be nervous. For questions like “why don’t you want to talk on the phone” answer “scammers are constantly calling, I don’t know who you are, the lawyer will call you back or I’ll call you back”
V. Do not have a discussion about the need to send an official agenda by mail. And do not say that until you sign - do not show up
VI. After receiving the information, take a calm decision on further actions.

IMPORTANT! Many lawyers advise you not to go without an official subpoena and personal signature on it; thousands of articles on the Internet have been written about this. My personal opinion is that any call by a police officer or investigative committee requires
attention and assessment of the situation, not formalism. You can not rest on the horn in the case and go to the interrogation in handcuffs. There are such cases. If they want to interrogate you, they will interrogate you.
In accordance with Article 188 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation, the summons is handed over to the person called for interrogation, against receipt, or transmitted by means of communication. This vague wording makes it possible to draw up a report that the witness was called several times, and he refused to come. And then, referring to article 113 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, subject you to a drive, that is, forced delivery. Yes, of course, in order to transmit the summons using the means of communication, you need the consent of the person issued by the receipt, but who cares ?! We study life, not theory.
Myths and legends
1) If summoned for interrogation - there is something on me. If summoned for interrogation - this is the first call and will certainly attract
Interrogation is a routine. In one criminal case, there can be 20 or 50 interrogations. The vast majority of interrogations take place once and have no continuation. The investigator needs to work out all the versions and interrogate all possible witnesses, even if they are not relevant. Often interrogations cover up the presence of operational
information that is simply too lazy to convert into criminal case materials, since it is easier to pull a person and interrogate him.
2) If summoned for questioning, they will be rude and torture. They will knock readings
Torture a witness ... For 10 years of work as a lawyer in Moscow, I have not seen such a thing. He asked his colleagues - it happens very, very rarely. Violence in law enforcement agencies is regularly applied to suspected and accused of violent crimes, illegal migrants and asocial persons intoxicated.

Even to lawyers. Cases of physical abuse of witnesses are sporadic.
They can be rude. They can threaten, crush, provoke, apply methods, which we will discuss below. Many employees, especially in the district police departments, are simply unable to speak humanly. This must be understood and taken into account.

3) You cannot come for interrogation with a lawyer
The witness has the unconditional right to appear for questioning with a lawyer in accordance with Articles 56, 189 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation. Waiver of this right can only be voluntary, no matter what you are told.
But! The witness must take care of finding a lawyer before appearing for interrogation. Unlike the suspect and the accused, the state lawyer is not provided to the witness upon request.
4) If I come with a lawyer - I'm to blame.
Every person who has been summoned to law enforcement agencies, FOR ANY EVENT, has the right to appear with a lawyer in accordance with article 48 of the Constitution. This does not indicate guilt and does not worsen the situation.

5) During interrogation, I must accurately answer all the questions. Otherwise, they will be attracted for refusing to testify.
You need to answer. But each of us is a living person. It is necessary to remember once and for all that a living person has the right to “forget”, “not to remember”, “not to remember”, “not to remember at the moment”, “really want to help the investigation, but to do this, look at the notebook”, “not understand question "," feel bad. "
And a living person has the right to be afraid and nervous during interrogation, and this is not a shame and this is normal!
None of the above is scary, reprehensible and does not mean anything. We are not robots! Whatever you are told.
Article 307 of the Criminal Code establishes liability for knowingly false testimonies of a witness.
Article 308 of the Criminal Code establishes liability for the refusal of a witness and a victim to testify.
But to hold accountable on these articles for the answers “forgot”, “I don’t remember,” “I don’t remember now” is practically impossible.
6) 51 of the Constitution is a myth and a guilty plea

Any person in accordance with Article 51 of the Constitution has the right not to testify against himself and close relatives. This is an unconditional right of every person and does not indicate guilt. At the same time, law enforcement officers like to say that using 51 articles is very, very bad. Bad for them, as they will have to work harder.
Moreover, if a person took advantage of 51 articles, it is only possible to interrogate him again with his voluntary consent - this follows from 51 itself: if he refused, then there is nothing to talk about.

But there are important nuances:
• 51 should be used wisely, clearly realizing that the investigation, without receiving evidence from you, will begin to search for them in other places
• It is necessary to distinguish between refusal to 51 and refusal to testify, which is prosecuted under article 308 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: you can refuse to talk about yourself, husband, wife, sister, grandfather. But you can’t refuse to answer questions about other people, events that you have witnessed, documents that you saw, etc.
7) They will interrogate for a day and keep them awake
In accordance with article 187 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, interrogation can last continuously for 4 hours. Then an hour break. Then another 4 hours.
If there is a medical condition, the duration of the interrogation may be limited by the doctor.
Interrogation at night from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. is allowed only with the written consent of a witness or victim.
If you came to the interrogation without a lawyer and these rules are violated - ask to call the head of the department or the person on duty and inform that you will record in the interrogation protocol a violation of the interrogation rules and violation of time restrictions.
If you have health problems, take medical documents with you and inform the investigator about this before starting the interrogation. Militiamen are VERY MUCH afraid of any situations in which a person becomes ill while being in their territory - this is a serious reason for conducting checks for torture,
violence, failure to provide assistance with all the consequences
8) During interrogation they will not let me go to the toilet, they will take away the phone, search
You cannot be denied access to the toilet - this is regarded as pressure on the witness and even torture.
It is unlawful to seize any things from a witness or a victim, including a mobile phone, during interrogation.
However, investigators use the following “life hack”: they obtain a court decision in advance to seize a witness or issue a decision to seize a court without a court decision “in urgent cases”. Either the opera suddenly tear the phone out of his hands; it is chaos, but it happens.
Recommendation: before interrogation, transfer all personal belongings to a lawyer or, if the interrogation is conducted without a lawyer, leave personal belongings at home or in the car, and turn off the phone
9) Will provoke and force to stipulate acquaintances, friends, relatives
They can. Unfortunately, they can crush and threaten. This is their work, and one must be prepared for such a development of events. Not everyone has the opportunity to hire a lawyer, and we will look at ways to interrogate below.

10) Called for interrogation - they will definitely come home with a search
There is no correlation between interrogation and search. If there is reason, then, most likely, they will first come with a search, and then they will take me away for interrogation
11) Detain and send to prison to think
The unmotivated detention of a witness is lawlessness. Such cases occur, for example, if a person was taken on the street, and no one knows where he is. It is not possible to send a witness to the detention center or detain him if the person has an identity document.
RECOMMENDATION: knowing where we live, it is necessary to do the following: warn relatives and friends about a visit to the police and indicate the time at which you must return or call. If there is no news from you at the scheduled time, relatives should start calling the call center of the police department where you went, demanding information
about your whereabouts. Or come to the department. This will prevent employees from illegally holding a witness, as relatives can also call the prosecutor's office or their own security service. Or simply by “102” with the message that the person went to such and such a police department and disappeared. All calls on "102" are written. The consequences for the police can be deplorable
12) The witness has no rights
The rights of a witness are listed in article 56 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. Among them: do not testify against yourself and loved ones, file petitions and bring complaints, including to the prosecutor's office and the court, to appear for questioning with a lawyer. In accordance with Article 190 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the interrogation's application for addition and clarification of the protocol is subject to mandatory
In accordance with article 189 of the CPC, the interrogated person has the right to use documents and records. Investigators often require you to answer questions without looking at notebooks or documents. It's illegal. But be prepared to show these papers to the investigator.
You also have the right to take notes during interrogation.

RECOMMENDATION: if during the interrogation you have any complaints against the investigator, the testimony of the interrogation incorrectly reflects your testimonies, there were strangers in the office or there is something else that you think is important, be sure to make appropriate additions and comments to the protocol - this is your right !
If during the interrogation technical means were used (video, voice recorder), information about this should be reflected in the protocol.
Interrogation protocol: a formalized interrogation protocol is an important document, a copy of which would be nice to get. The investigator is not obliged to issue a copy of the protocol, which does not interfere with politely asking him about it. More than half
cases you will go to a meeting.
What interrogations are:
1) Conflict-free, soft
2) Conflict, hard
3) Conflict, non-rigid
4) Mixed with buildup
Interrogations are conducted in the following ways:
1) The investigator offers the witness to tell everything that he knows on the question of interest to the investigation - “free story”

2) The investigator asks specific questions
3) Mixed interrogation, when the witness first tells, and then the investigator asks questions. Or vice versa, but less often.

Interrogation Techniques
I want to note that a standard interrogation can and in most cases takes place calmly, even boringly, without a strong emotional buildup. The methods described below are applied both separately and together. In especially difficult cases, you have to “fight” with professionals using psycholinguistic techniques.
IMPORTANT NOTE: a calm, balanced, confident witness is a problem for the investigator, whose task is to obtain detailed detailed testimonies. Work with an emotionally unbalanced, nervous, doubting person in the vast majority of cases is simpler and “more useful”. Therefore, the lion's share of interrogation methods is aimed at rocking the emotional state of the interrogated, knocking him out

Similar techniques are used by all law enforcement agencies around the world. In ordinary life, this can be encountered, for example, in Israel at the airport. Ben-Gurion, where aviation security officers are fluent in psychological techniques, using them to search for unreliable air passengers and terrorists.

"Easy conversation"
The investigator conducts an interrogation in the form of a light, even pleasant conversation. He smiles, jokes, apologizes for having torn off work or rest. He does everything so that the interlocutor relaxes and releases control. It seeks to perceive itself as a "normal person." Offers tea, coffee. He says, if you need to interrupt, to the toilet, to call - of course, please, at any time. He convinces that this is an empty formality, which he is forced to carry out. He promises that this will end and that there will be no more challenges, despite such a pleasant conversation.
RECOMMENDATION: in no case should you relax while you are being interrogated and inside the building in which the law enforcement agency is located. It is necessary to clearly understand where you are, why you came and who you are talking to. This should not be paranoia, but conscious control over the situation. It is possible that the investigator is amiable, pleasant, and intelligent. But he solves quite specific tasks that most of us do not cause the most pleasant emotions. At any moment, a sharp, sudden question can follow, which will pull a chain of even more unpleasant questions.
"Relieving stress"
The vast majority of people do not like the police, they are nervous and tense when they visit law enforcement agencies. The reasons are known.

Investigators skillfully use this, convincing the visitor that they are not the ones they write about in newspapers and show on television.

“You see that I am just like you?” “Do I look like a policeman?”
- Mom still does not believe that I work in the police.
“We have much more in common with you than you think.”
Once I was with a client in interrogation. Immediately after the start, a bell rang, the investigator apologized and picked up the phone. His daughter called. For a few minutes they talked about studying and giving Mom a birthday present. His face changed, facial wrinkles smoothed out, his eyes became brighter and brighter ... We were involuntary listeners and saw that he was a living person like us.
He hung up, there was a slight pause during which the mask on his face seemed to come back. Then came several sharp unpleasant questions on the merits. I had to prevent the client from listening to the investigator’s personal conversation, drawing his attention to himself.
"Distraction, lulling"
Let me give you an example: the head of the IT department of a large company was called in for questioning in the case of tax evasion. A young man went into the investigator's office and saw a fat man of about his age unsuccessfully fighting a printer that refused to print.
The investigator, and it was him, apologized, offered to sit down and said that the interrogation protocol was almost ready, this is a formality, now he will only fix the printer.
After 30 minutes of fuss, the witness offered his help. The investigator, embarrassed and joking that he had a lot of secret papers on his desk, allowed him to sit in his place. Our IT specialist began to deal with the printer and settings, and the investigator, sitting opposite, was carrying some kind of “nonsense” about computers, about his incompetence in technology and asked
what should he do if this happens again.
After another 15 minutes, the IT specialist understood two things:
1) Printer settings have been changed intentionally.
2) He himself has already managed to answer 3 questions of the investigator on the merits, including, among other things, calling
the name of the person whom I was not going to talk about.
“Changing the pace of interrogation”
A very common method is when the investigator, having relaxed the interrogated person with a soft conversation, suddenly starts asking questions at a fast pace, demanding the same quick answers. Then, finding a pretext (oh, I see I completely shook you, sorry), it sharply slows down.

There can be several such cycles. In a normal person, such conversations cause irritation and psychological discomfort. The well-known “bad-good policeman” method is a development of this method of interrogation, but with two employees using different pace and manner of communication with the interrogated.
RECOMMENDATION: in the case of using such a method, it is recommended to make efforts to establish your own pace of communication. No one can force anyone to testify. No one can dictate the speed of answers to questions. You can not attract a person for pauses when considering the answers. Gently indicate to the investigator that such
communication you perceive as pressure and threat. Ask not to talk to you this way, since such communication can lead, for example, to a neurosis. Indicate that, taking into account your character and relations with your parents, who scolded you in exactly this way, you may fall into a psychological stupor.
“A sudden question during a casual conversation, inertia”
As a result of a casual conversation, a person may get the impression that the investigator got all the necessary information, if he doesn’t need anything and he just humanly discusses everyday topics, politics, shares his views on life and talks about the weather. After 20-30 minutes, most people relax and let go.
control, forgetting that in front of them is a professional lawyer and psychologist who can do this on purpose. Suddenly, without changing the strength and timbre of the voice, as though resembling, a substantive question follows, the answer to which is pronounced “by inertia”. The pace of interrogation changes immediately and becomes tough fast with consistent questions on

“Creating stress by long waiting”
Despite the appointed time, a person is forced to wait on the street or in front of the investigator's office, which increases nervousness and excitement.
A variation of this method is a short, sharp, unpleasant start to the interrogation and a sudden break for several hours, during which the witness is in intense emotional stress.
“Demonstration of the power and capabilities of the investigation, exaggeration of the possibilities”
- You understand that all telephone conversations were tapped
- The data of your instant messengers and all correspondence are fixed
- Billing will show where you were on these dates.
- Here, read the example of the indictment (sentence)
- Our capabilities allow you to schedule your actions per minute
- Here we have evidence, do not want to get acquainted?
- There are no conditional terms for such an article.
- Three people confirm that you organized this scheme
- And Facebook, and Votsap, and Telegram we open in a few hours
- Refusal to cooperate with the investigation is your main mistake in life

The task of the investigator is to rock your emotional state in order to obtain the necessary evidence.
"Emotional swing provocative phrases"
Are you aware that your wife is cheating on you?
We then learned that your daughter is abusing drugs.
We are worried that your colleagues and superiors will learn this unpleasant information.
Have you previously discussed this interrogation by anyone?
We heard you were threatened, at least you talked about it with someone on the phone
You use drugs, we have such information here
And all your friends say that it was not at all
We have information that you used the services of prostitutes
The list of sites that you visit from your home computer is striking in its brightness.
The goal is to knock out a witness from a calm state and, using a flash of anger or confusion, get the right testimony.
"Announcement of a break, providing an opportunity to think"
After many hours of interrogation, when the witness is already tired and when it can be assumed that the process is coming to a logical conclusion, the investigator suddenly draws up a protocol and ends the interrogation, calling the witness in a few days or informing that he will call for a second interrogation. A person remains for several days in emotional stress.
“Using misinformation”
One of the illegal provocative methods of interrogation is the use of knowingly false information, which helps the investigator to get the witness out of a calm balanced state.
“Your friend has already admitted everything, now it's your turn.” By the way, he writes a confession in the next room (development of the prisoner's dilemma)
- Mail.RU has given us all your correspondence in 10 years. Such things
“The person you cover killed the witness.” Do you understand what I mean?
“Do you know that your colleague raped the child?” And you can’t explain to the investigation about his financial frauds.
- On the press of the company your prints - this is the conclusion of the examination
- Here we detained your son with drugs, what will we do?
“The threat of compromise”

During the investigation, authorities often gain access to information that is not relevant to the case, but is compromising for some individuals who are being interrogated.

Unscrupulous investigators may use the threat of divulging such information to obtain the necessary evidence.
Legend Assumption

Knowing that the witness is giving false evidence, the investigator allows this, agrees with the interrogated.

He asks about the details, asks for clarification, and logs all this in detail. Up to 50-70 questions can be asked on trifles (the so-called detailing of indications). If the witness is lying, then he has to invent
trifles, but remembering them all is almost impossible.
After signing the protocol, the investigator presents evidence of lies and offers the witness a choice: responsibility for giving false testimony or cooperation with the investigation.
"Burning bridges"

The development of the “legendary assumption” method, when the investigator details the obviously false testimony of a witness, draws up an interrogation protocol and tells the witness that this is all over, the investigation has no more questions.
However, after some time, the witness is called face-to-face, where other witnesses refute these testimonies, or are immediately charged under an article on knowingly false testimonies.
1) Calm and only calm. It’s easy for me to say this, but I just NEED to be calm and, if possible, relaxed.
Investigators are excellent psychologists, and they feel the tension and clamps of their interlocutors.
2) The witness has many rights. They must be remembered and not allowed to violate these rights. Do not testify against yourself and loved ones, file petitions and file complaints, come with a lawyer, go to the toilet, have a drink, do not allow pressure on yourself, warn about psychological and physical discomfort, about health problems
3) Try to respect the work of law enforcement. At least a little bit. They really rake mountains of shit. Whatever you think
4) Do not forget that we have a professional lawyer - an investigator, psychologist, a person exposed to power, capable of depriving of freedom and many civil rights. Do not forget that there are complete freaks, like everywhere in
of life. Do not relax from the sweet smile of the girl investigator, cheering on the compliments of “your own in the plank's board”, talking about mother-in-law and fishing. At any moment, a queue of unpleasant questions may follow,
which will have to somehow respond.
5) Do not put pressure on pity, do not juggle names of authorities, do not be rude, do not insult, do not engage in polemics, unless your rights are violated.

Be extremely polite and not respond to provocations. Provocations - their tool, like a scalpel for a surgeon
6) Before interrogation, sit down and calmly think over all possible options for developing a conversation and all possible topics on which questions may follow. Draw a block diagram, think over possible answers. Lies are often the bad answer
7) Do not answer questions that are not asked:
- Tell me, with what color pen does your boss sign documents?
/ answer1, correct /
- blue
/ answer2, not very /
- Blue, and he also has a gold cartier pen, with which he signs the checks, I also saw a notebook with pencils in his bag and he also carries a knife there all the time.
We draw conclusions ....
8) No need to expect sympathy, pity, understanding, trust from the investigator. His job is not to trust. You do not expect a steak from the coffee machine.
9) To be alive and not to build either a robot or a hero. You have a right to it!
Psycholinguistic markers that may be interpreted by law enforcement officials as indicators of incomplete or false readings
Markers like “You may not believe me, but I'm telling the truth”:
“Honestly, I’m not capable of that.”
- “I can’t lie to you, they raised me differently”
- "Believe me…"
- “To be honest, I didn’t even know that ...”
- “I have absolutely no reason to lie”
- “Frankly, I do not believe that someone did this”
“That's 100 percent true.”
- "Seriously, then ..."
“I've never been so serious before.”
“I'll tell you straight ...”
- "Honestly, I do not know … "
- "As far as I remember, I did not see ..."

Markers of the type "by the way": - "By the way, did you find anything by searching the office?"
“Tell me, were there by any chance witnesses?”
- “And here's another thing! There seems to have been ... "
- “By the way, I was just on a business trip at this time”

Markers - modifications: - “Usually I don’t get involved with such people”
“I almost did what I shouldn't.”
- "In most cases, I do not lose control of myself"
- "I, in general, am very calm"
- “Probably, but would be capable of it under certain circumstances”
- “I hardly was at the office that day”
- “As a rule, I pay all taxes”
Markers - indicators of guilt:
- "If it were possible to assume that I was there, then ..."
- "Now, if I had a friend who would do the same ..."
- "Let's assume ..."
“Let's look at a hypothetical situation that I have to do with this ...”
- “Imagine that your suspicions are justified. Just imagine! ”

Protective markers: - “Why will I put myself and my family at risk by going for it?”
- “If I received this money, then why am I here in front of you, and not left?”
“Is it not clear that I have nothing to do with that kind of money?”
“Why should I do this if ...?”
“Why does the investigation think so if I have nothing to do with it?”

Failure time markers: - “I had lunch. The next thing I remember ... "
“I worked in the office until noon and talked to him. The next day…"

Move Markers:
“Everyone knew that this was bound to happen sooner or later.”
“What he is accused of is completely untypical of him.”
“Everyone could make a mistake.”

In conclusion, I will quote the “anti-manipulative behavior reminder” from the manual for investigators:
1. Feeling irritated, embarrassed, confused, answer your question:
"Why is this happening so important to me?" Relate your answer to your values.
2. As a self-confident person, you have the right to say NO.
3. You have the right to not give any explanation justifying your behavior.
4. You have the right to change your mind and position.
5. You have the right to say I DO NOT KNOW.
6. You have the right not to depend on the GOOD WILL of other people.
7. You have the right to say I DO NOT UNDERSTAND YOU.
8. You have the right to personally decide whether you are responsible for other people's problems and to what extent.
9. You have the right to confess ME DOES NOT WORRY.
10. You have the right to make mistakes and be responsible for them.
The feeling that the author wrote this memo is not for law enforcement officials, but for everyone, including you and me.
Posted by: Roman Norman

Dmitrieva L.A. "Psychology of professional communication in investigative activities." M., 2018
Ragulin A.V. “Procedural and tactical aspects of the activities of the defense attorney in criminal
legal proceedings. " M., 2011
Piteretsev S.K. Stepanov A.A. “Tactics of interrogation at the preliminary investigation and trial. SPb, 2001

29.05.2020 13:05:31
(Automatic translation)

Roman Norman


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