Fight pointless or merciless? - 1BiTv.com

Fight pointless or merciless?

According to experts, it is not local measures that will help destroy the hogweed, but indefinite systematic work in all regions of the country.


Fight pointless or merciless?


The land on which there is no owner, overgrown with weeds. This simple conclusion was made by the experts of the AgroRuss exhibition fair, which finished its work in St. Petersburg. However, neither local measures nor the short-term target program can eradicate the existing problem.
We wanted the best
It is known that half a century ago the hogweed Sosnovsky, named after the researcher of the flora of the Caucasus, was cultivated in the country as a silage plant brought from the Caucasus Mountains. According to some information, at the end of the 1940s, breeder Peter Vavilov from the Institute of Biology of the Komi ASSR convinced the leadership of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences that the hogweed would help restore agriculture after the war. Therefore, in 1947, a number of Soviet institutions began work on its selection. Back in the 80s of the twentieth century, scientists noted that the yield of hogweed in the Leningrad region reached 1,528 centners per hectare.
Later it turned out that the plant easily penetrates into natural ecosystems, almost completely destroying them. Only at the beginning of the new century, the plant was included in the list of weed and dangerous plants - the Black Book of the Flora of Central Russia, and since 2012 it has been excluded from the achievements of selection. However, it was too late - this “aggressor plant” began its victorious spread across the fields of the country and, according to various estimates, took about 30 percent, or about 60 million hectares, of farmland.
Today, there are 52 species of Hogweed in the world, while Kirill Tkachenko, head of the introduction group of useful plants and the seed laboratory of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Botanical Institute named after them, believes. VL Komarova, Russian Academy of Sciences, "problems exist only with two species of this plant."
True, to destroy it without good, according to the expert, is irrational. This plant also has a certain potential not only as animal feed due to the high content of nutrients (protein, sugars, vitamins and trace elements). It is actively used in folk medicine as an antibacterial, antiviral agent. According to the expert, the essential oils of the plant are valuable, as well as honey. Cheap sugar, cellulose, and fuel can be produced from the weed.
Fight - senseless or merciless?
Currently, there are many types of fight against cow parsnip, the best of which, as experts say, is a shovel. However, if this advice were as effective as it was concise, the farmers would have less problems.
“We start to struggle with the plant too late, when the seeds are already ripe,” explains Kirill Tkachenko. Then herbicides come into play and ... it is from this moment that difficulties begin, as chemicals only help for a while. At best - for a few years. If you start the flowering time, the seeds of the plant will be spread in any possible way - including using the nearest reservoir. A huge amount - about 20,000 from one plant - small and light seeds are spread even by weak wind for many kilometers. As the scientists say, this can occur not only in spring or summer, but also in bad weather in winter - on a snowy crust.
What to do to defeat the "aggressor"? According to experts, mowing or burning in this case is not as effective as chemical treatment. The easiest method - digging and plowing, as well as trimming the inflorescences, but it requires mandatory and strict safety precautions - a hogweed can cause severe skin burns. Some experts suggest borschevichnuyu mole to breed against biological weed.
Another way is to expel the plant with other crops. For example, Jerusalem artichoke (which, by the way, is also an “aggressor”), believes Andrei Komarov, chief researcher at the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Agrophysical Research Institute.
- Any means that are used with us, against the Hogweed do not work. We need to find out the place in the ecosystem that the “aggressor” occupies and find a replacement for it, the expert explains. However, in order to oust the weed, research is needed, and therefore funding, which is currently not allocated. In other words, we need “not local measures, but directed combat actions”, otherwise “all funds will be wasted,” Komarov is sure.
We will help the whole world
Experts believe that it is only possible to eradicate evil. Recently, Moscow Region deputies in the third reading approved a law that empowers land owners with the duty to clean such a weed as the hogweed Sosnovsky. And introduces significant fines. Now a similar document is being developed in the Leningrad region, although previously scientists have already come forward with a similar initiative.
A more meaningful solution to the problem would be a federal targeted program, said Olga Zhiglova, deputy head of the branch of the Rosselkhoz Center, Leningrad Region. It would allow not only to designate a list of necessary measures, but also the dates of their implementation, as well as the rules for the use of certain methods of weed control. Today, the use of chemicals, for example, is limited to children's institutions and residential buildings, and on the territory of private owners in general any actions are prohibited without their consent.
The experience of Belarus, where certain successes have already been achieved in this matter, could help our country in the formation and implementation of a set of measures to combat weed.
“We need to understand the development of the plant in order to stop it,” comments Nikolai Laman, head of the plant growth and development laboratory of the State Scientific Institution “Institute of Experimental Botany named after V. F. Kuprevich of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus” - It spreads only by seeds, and if there are no seeds, no spread. Therefore, it is important that flowering individuals are considered as an emergency at all levels. Even all soils that are removed from construction sites must be examined for the presence of seeds in order to limit their distribution.
However, in one year the good results of the situation cannot be changed, further monitoring of the soil is needed, the expert believes. Therefore, purposeful ongoing actions are not important, but are not limited to funding or a program.
And at first, “we need to understand whether we are fighting or not,” says Yuri Dyakonov, head of the Representative Office of Avgust JSC in the Moscow region, because the main thing is “to warn future shoots of hogweed, and not just destroy what we have.”
Today, the measures taken by individual regions do not solve the problem. In general, the approach is clear - for the integrated destruction of the weed, according to experts, you need ... 3.6 trillion rubles.
At the beginning of the journey
But the hogweed of Sosnowski, experts say, is only the tip of the iceberg.
“I think that the problem is not only in two types of hogweed, there are other types of giant weeds that can spread just as aggressively,” says Dmitry Geltman, director of the FGBUN Botanical Institute. V. L. Komarova RAS. The situation is not the best in Western Europe, captured by the Hogweed Montegazzi, in America - with euphorbia.
The expert argues that it is impossible to create biomethods that together solve the problem of the hogweed Sosnovsky in the country in two or three years. There should be a “malicious list” that unites all possible “aggressor plants”, as well as a permanent control of their distribution.
By the way
One of the St. Petersburg enterprises has developed its own method of weed control. On large plots of land where it is possible to go through the technology, the company proposes to use the technology of high-frequency electromagnetic sterilization of hogweed seeds and rhizomes. According to the developers, the technology is highly efficient, environmentally friendly, less expensive than herbicide treatment, and has no analogues in the world. At present, the technological modes of the equipment are being optimized.
BORSCHEVIK WAS A CHANCE
Kirill Tkachenko, head of the introduction group of useful plants of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden: The desolation of the fields in the last 15–20 years has given the hogweed an incredible chance to master arable land and not only. Easily propagated by seeds with their good volatility, the hogweed quickly spreads along the roads, goes into the forests and overgrown shrubs. In the future, this circumstance will significantly slow down the fight against it.
Identify foci
It is necessary to develop and adopt at the regional level a unified program for monitoring the spread of invasive plant species, the data of which should be recorded on an interactive map. Since first of all, control is necessary over the spread of hogweed, and then - the choice of technology to combat this species.
Let us tell everyone Zoya Kanina, scientific communicator, initiator of the project borshevik.tilda.ws:
To tell Internet users how it’s worth, and how not to fight a hogweed, we have created a special portal borshevik.tilda.ws with several biologists. All the facts were checked by representatives of science, but we tried to describe them in an accessible language to any reader. Within the framework of the portal, a map of the distribution of the plant is made - anyone can add a point.
Do not miss the moment
Lyubov Ievleva, Deputy Head of the Rosselkhoznadzor for Karelia, the Arkhangelsk Region and the NAO: The cheapest way to deal with a cow parsnip is spring destruction of seedlings. You can use all sorts of agricultural practices. And it is possible to process herbicides. But it is important to carry out these works on time, at the stage of the first two or three true leaves. When umbrellas are formed with the start of seeds, it is more difficult to fight with a hogweed. Umbrellas will have to be processed, higher doses of chemistry will be required.




Source: Rossiyskaya Gazeta


06.11.2018 07:57:31
(Automatic translation)






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